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Old 02-02-2004, 06:54 PM   #12
Desultory Dwimmerlaik
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From Pio


Drawing Ships

Ships' Riggings:



From Bęthberry

Probert Encyclopedia--Ships


From Pio

Here is a link to nautical terminology:



From Bęthberry

The Atlas of Middle Earth has a small section called "Pathways" which charts distances traveled for each day traveled from September 3018 III to March 3019 III, pp.157-161.

It also lists ranges for speeds on p. 156. Here is the info on ships:

Small boats with current:
drifting 2.8 mph
paddling 4.1 mph
ships against current:
rowing 4.7 mph
sailing 7.2 mph


From Envinyatar

Good place for NAUTICAL information:



From maikafanawen

Here is some useful information concerning Ship's Time.

Taken from the Appendix to 'The True Confessions of Charlotte Doyle'

Ship's Time

On sailing ships crews were divided into teams so as to share all work. These teams were called watches. On the North Wind, Meri Loliway has the command of one watch, Frenchy--now Marx, as residing second mate--takes charge of the second.

The day was broken up into time periods--also called watches--as follows:

Midwatch ran from midnight to 4:00 AM;
morning watch ran from 4:00 AM to 8:00 AM;
forenoon watch ran from 8:00 AM to 12:00 noon;
afternoon watch ran from 12:00 noon to 4:00 PM;
first dog watch ran from 4:00 PM to 6:00 PM;
second dog watch ran from 6:00 PM to 8:00 PM;
night watch ran from 8:00 PM to midnight.

A typical day would have a sailor working alternate watches, a system called "watch and watch," in this fashion:

off during midwatch; work morning watch;
off forenoon watch; work afternoon watch;
off first dog watch; work second dog watch;
off night watch.

This meant that on the following day the sailor's schedule would be:

Work during midwatch; off morning watch;
work forenoon watch; off afternoon watch;
work first dog watch; off second dog watch;
work night watch.

And so on....

This pattern of watch and watch meant that no sailor ever had more than four hours sleep at a time. Of course, if there was a need, such as general reseting or overhaul of the sails--or a storm--all hands could be called, and they would report even if it was not their watch. (Or if it was a battle!)

To keep track of time, the mates rang the ship's bell every half hour. They did it this way:

1 bell meant the first half hour after the watch began;
2 bells meant the second half hour;
3 bells meant the third half hour;
4 bells meant the fourth half hour;
5 bells meant the fifth half hour;
6 bells meant the sixth half hour;
7 bells meant the seventh half hour;
8 bells mean the eighth half hour and the end of the watch.

For example, if two bells ran out during the first dog watch, it would be, by land reckoning, 5:00 PM.

War ships/Pirate ships




Last edited by piosenniel; 02-20-2011 at 09:37 PM.
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