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Old 08-16-2005, 09:05 AM   #1
davem
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Galadhremmin Ennorath

(The idea for this thread was sparked by a talk at Tolkien 2005 in Birmingham. The speaker ummed & erred a lot, so it was difficult to follow his argument. This thread idea, therefore, is made up of my own thoughts, inspired by what I heard).

Galadhremmin Ennorath

Shippey translates (Author of the Century) this as ‘tree-tangled Middle-earth’ & refers to various images in Tolkien’s works. He says

Quote:
The images oppose stars & trees: the stars give a promise, or for Elves a memory, of a world elsewhere; the trees represennt both this world & a barrier to starlight, something through the branches of which mortals look up to try to catch a glimpse of the vision which would otherwise be clear.
So, for Shippey, the branches of trees (the things of Middle-earth - even the natural ones) get in the way of the pure, clear vision of the spiritual world. The branches are a ‘barrier’. If the branches were removed, therefore, the stars would be revealed in all their glory.

Yet the Elves love trees most - after the stars - so do they really think of them as a ‘barrier’, as something in the way, an ‘obstacle’ to their vision of the stars?

The image of ‘light’ shining through tree branches is a recurring one which runs throughout the history of Middle-earth.

Quote:
Now Eriol was coming from the south & a straight road ran before him.....in places overhung with great dark yews. Through them as he climbed the road he could see the first stars shine forth...

The sun had sunk beyond the boughs of the elms .....& sometime had its gold faded through the leaves.... (Cottage of Lost Play:Book of Lost Tales)
Quote:
Thy singing poplars; & ther splendid yews
That crown thine aged walls & muse
Of sombre grandeur alll the day-
Until the twinkle of the early stars
Is tangled palely in their sable bars
.....

And oft they dance beneath the roofless sky,
When naked elms entwine in branching llace
The Seven Stars,
& through the bough the eye
Stares golden-beaming in the round moon’s face
(Kortirion among the Trees:BoLT)
Quote:
High to heaven they (elm trees) rose in three lessening storeys of bright foliage, & the sunlight that filtered through was very cool - a golden green...

Now was Orome less gloomy & Palurien was comforted, seeing the beauty of the first stars of Varda gleaming in the pale heavens through the shadows of the first trees boughs....(The Chaining of Melko:BoLT)
Quote:
He gazed, & as he gazed her hair
Within its cloudy web did snare
The silver moonbeams
sifting white
between the lleaves, & glinting bright
The tremulous starlight of the skies
was caught & mirrored in her eyes..(early version)

And Beren looked into her eyes
Within the shadows of her hair,
The trembling starlight of the skies
He saw there mirrored shimmering


(Lay of Leithian)
Bear with me on the last one - there is a link between trees & hair.

Quote:
Above her brow her head was covered with a cap of silver lace netted with small gems, glittereing white....(Many Meetings)
Quote:
I sang of leaves, of leaves of gold....
And by the strand of Ilmarin there grew a golden tree
beneath the stars of Ever-eve in Eldamar it shone
...

And in a fading crown have twined the golden Elanor
(Galadriel’s song in Lorien)
The last line quoted is interesting, given that the literal translation of ‘El-anor’ is ‘star-sun’. Galadriel has woven a ‘crown’ of star-suns’ to place on her head/in her hair...

Quote:
‘There is nothing, Lady Galadriel,’ said Gimli......’Unless it is permitted to ask...a single strand of your hair, which surpasses the gold of the earth as the stars surpass the gems of the mine.’(Farewelll to Lorien)
Quote:
Enerdhil loved all green things that grew, & his greatest joy was to see the sunlight through the leaves of trees. And it came into his heart to make a jewel within which the clear light of the sun should be imprisoned, but the jewel should be green as leaves....

For it is said that those who looked through this stone saw things that were withered or burned healed again or as they were in the grace of their youth. (History of Galadriel & Celeborn)
Finally, coming back to Galadriel’s hair - allso in Galadriel & Celeborn we’re told that:

Quote:
...her hair held a marvel unmatched. It was golden like the hair of her father & of her foremother Indis, but richer & more radiant, for its gold was touched by some memory f the starlike silver of her mother; & the eldar said that the llight of the Two Trees, Laurelin & Telperion, had been snared in her tresses. Many thought that this saying first gave to Feanor the thought of imprisoning & blending the light of the Two Trees that later took shape in his hands as the Silmarils. For Feanor beheld the hair of Galadriiel with wonder & delight. He begged three times for a tress, but Galadriel would not give him even one hair.
In light of this last statement, we can see how significant is Gimli’s request for a single hair from Galadriel’s head. Feanor requests a tress of it & is rejected. Gimli asks for one, to set in [i]imperishable[/b] crystal & she gives him three. This may be even more significant, if Gimli goes on to set each of the three hairs in a crystal of its own.

Galadriel’s name is usually translated as ‘Lady of Light’ but its actually closer in meaning to ‘radiient haired maiden’ Tolkien describes her hair as ‘’shining’. It shines with the light of the Two Trees, So, if the hairs are set in animperishable crystal each by Gimli, what he will end up with are three imperishable crystals, shining with the light of the Two Trees.

The similarity between the Quenya & Sindarin words for ‘Tree’ & ‘Light’ are interesting in this context:

Quenya Sindarin

Alta = Light = Galad
Alda = Tree = Galadh

What we have, running right through the Legendarium, from Tolkien’s earliest writings down to his final ones, are the twin images of light shining either through tree branches or in women’s hair. Why? The hair thing is difficult to answer, but the connection of Light & Tree is easier - the ultimate, archetypal, trees in Middle-earth were Telperion & Laurelin, which shone with Golden & Silver Light. It may be that light shining in or through hair is meant to work as analogy. Every appearance of trees with light shining through their branches seems to be a deliberate ‘echo’ of the Primal trees, as is every image of gold & silver light - especially when they are mingled - as in the hair of Galadriel. So, its not so much that the branches of trees get ‘in the way’ of the stars, but rather that the two - trees & gold/silver light are a single thing, a tree of light..

Or am I completely wrong here?

Last edited by davem; 08-16-2005 at 09:09 AM.
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Old 08-16-2005, 09:08 AM   #2
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Quote:
"Or there maybe 'tis cloudless night
and swaying beeches bear
the elven stars as jewels white
amid their branching hair."
No, I do not think you are wrong at all. Not at all.

If memory serves-- was it not Feanor's frustration at being refused his request (of a strand of hair) that made him determined to create the silmarils in the first place? (Edit on rereading-- sorry, you already said that, more or less. ) Had Galadriel aquiesced, would we have had a happy Feanor-- and no theft, no oath, no kinslaying, etc, etc?

Which would mean that the fate of Middle-Earth was turned by Galadriel's hair and her attitude about it. (Clumsily said. And of course there are many other parties involved, etc. But the fact of her refusal remains, as does the connection between hair, trees, light, stars.
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Old 08-16-2005, 09:23 AM   #3
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Quote:
Originally Posted by mark12_30
No, I do not think you are wrong at all. Not at all.
Missed that one! I'm sure there must be many similar examples. Its interesting how in Middle-earth the experience of seeing light shining through branches or in hair inspires 'longing' & in many cases feelings of holyness.

Within Middle-earth it can be explained - it was due to the shining of the Two Trees, giving light in the darkness. But its such an odd image to choose. The word for hair (Fin) crops up in numerous names, alongside so many other references in fact that one has to say that 'hair' belongs among the physical things in Middle-earth that also have a 'spiritual' connotation - stars & trees particularly.

I suppose one has to speculate on the possible connection to the halo's of Saints - but then where do the tree branches fit in? In Middle-earth the relationship of light-hair-tree branches seems to be unique - unless there's some other myth or religion that makes the same connection, I can only think it was Tolkien's invention - & its such an odd sybolism...

Quote:
Originally Posted by Helen
Which would mean that the fate of Middle-Earth was turned by Galadriel's hair and her attitude about it. (Clumsily said. And of course there are many other parties involved, etc. But the fact of her refusal remains, as does the connection between hair, trees, light, stars.
Its also interesting (as one speaker pointed out) that Feanor, who desired her hair, went on to create the three Silmarilli, & Celebrimbor went on to create the Three Elven Rings, while Gimli went on (or may have at least) to create three crystals containing strands of her hair.

Last edited by davem; 08-16-2005 at 09:28 AM.
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Old 08-16-2005, 09:29 AM   #4
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He's even got ents with mossy beards and leafy, branchy stuff on their heads.

I wonder what Edith's hair was like, especially while she was dancing in the wood. Anybody know?
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Old 08-16-2005, 09:44 AM   #5
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Oh now pyrotechnic Galadriel of the movies makes so much more sense.
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Old 08-16-2005, 10:07 AM   #6
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lather, rinse, repeat

Nice ideas. Something definately was there for the author, wasnt it? But perhaps its the only real physical sense we really get when we feel fairy: the glimpse of a soft blending of silver and gold as it filters through nature. delightfull

Its art imitating life in its highest sense. The wonders Feanor created captured light, back when light was Light. It all repeats itself over time, albeit to a lesser and lesser extent. But it's all congruent with the desire of the elves to capture, or recapture an icon, or an idea, or a feeling that they dont want time to ravage.
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Old 08-16-2005, 11:20 AM   #7
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Quote:
Originally Posted by mark12_30
If memory serves-- was it not Feanor's frustration at being refused his request (of a strand of hair) that made him determined to create the silmarils in the first place? (Edit on rereading-- sorry, you already said that, more or less. ) Had Galadriel aquiesced, would we have had a happy Feanor-- and no theft, no oath, no kinslaying, etc, etc?
One thing that comes to mind is something another speaker said - after Feanor's repeated requests for a tress of Galadriel's hair it states that 'they were unfriends forever'. This is odd if you think about it - what was it about Feanor's request that produced such an extreme reaction? The speaker suggested there may have even been an incestuous desire on Feanor's part - after all, a lock of hair is a classic 'lover's gift'. I'm not sure about this, but Galadriel's response does speak to something more than mere irritation at being pestered for some of her hair. Another possibility suggested was the folklore tradition of using hair or fingernails of a person to cast a spell over them.

Certainly we do see that Feanor's desire was the 'light', the radiance, of Galadriel's hair. If, as in Sam's song, the branches of trees are seen as their 'hair' then it seems that Feanor's use of the light of the Trees is a substitute for the light of Galadriel's hair - it is a 'second best'. Maybe his reaction to the theft of the Silmarils is caught up with his feelings for Galadriel?

The Maedhros/Idril story springs to mind - this at least shows that incestuous desires for near kin were not wholly alien to the Eldar.....
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Old 08-16-2005, 01:15 PM   #8
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Quote:
Yet the Elves love trees most - after the stars - so do they really think of them as a ‘barrier’, as something in the way, an ‘obstacle’ to their vision of the stars?
It's an interesting theory, but the Two Trees were first made by the Valar, and Yavanna herself had the trees in her care. While trees do represent something more earthly than the stars, they both have their sources in the Valar, and ultimately in Iluvatar. And the trees, earth-rooted as they are, grow upwards, reaching for the stars.

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The Maedhros/Idril story springs to mind
I do believe you mean Maeglin.
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Old 08-16-2005, 02:01 PM   #9
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Encaitare
It's an interesting theory, but the Two Trees were first made by the Valar, and Yavanna herself had the trees in her care. While trees do represent something more earthly than the stars, they both have their sources in the Valar, and ultimately in Iluvatar. And the trees, earth-rooted as they are, grow upwards, reaching for the stars.
That's Shippey's theory. I agree with you



Quote:
I do believe you mean Maeglin.
I did. That's what happens when you spend hours finding quotes - names blur together in your mind.

Oh, & I also put too many 'm's in the thread title, too

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Old 08-16-2005, 02:16 PM   #10
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Quote:
Oh now pyrotechnic Galadriel of the movies makes so much more sense.
AAAAAARRRRRRRRRRRGGGGGGHHHHHHH!!!!!!

Anyway...

There is a theory that Elves represent a more spiritual aspect of our nature and the Dwarves represent a more earthly. For some reason I have a notion that perhaps to the Elves the trees represent a part of their attachment to the world around them since the trees are rooted in the earth while reaching up toward the heavens. Thus they may be less of a barrier and more of a connection. (This is completely ignoring the rest of the above mentioned theory that humanity represented the link between the two.)

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Old 08-16-2005, 02:59 PM   #11
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I'm just wondering if the image is meant to refer to the 'spirit' within/shining through matter? Spiritual Light shines in/through branches of trees & in/through hair.

The Light seen in/through hair/branches is the spiritual Light, the trees/hair symbolises matter, the physical world.

Or in other words, the Light shines in the Darkness & animates it - gives it life......

From this point of view, Shippey is wrong - its not that the trees/hair are in the way of the light - its the opposite - that the light shining in/through them hallows them...
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Old 08-16-2005, 03:06 PM   #12
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The simple explanation is that light shining through branches is one of the most beautiful things you can witness (apart from when driving) as it shifts, patterns are created, sometimes even forming fleeting images, and when coupled with glass or water droplets, rainbows can be seen moving about. I am sure Tolkien is not one of the first to have loved this sight. As for hair, shiny locks are a traditional signifier of beauty.

But in Tolkien's case, light has become Light, especially in Valinor. The light seen in Middle-earth is possibly just good old light, but transformed by the movement of trees and hair it becomes an altogether more beautiful thing and could easily become Light. The ancients of the primary world revered light as seen through Trilithons and openings in tombs (the midwinter sun at Newgrange for example) - for these people too, light became Light.

It fascinates people and always has done. This brings to mind again Newton's own strange experiments to find out exactly what the nature of light was, and likewise, Saruman's own fascination with Light. Could it be that there was more to it when he cut the trees down around Orthanc?

Light through trees in Middle-earth could be viewed by the people as something approaching the divine. Especially for Elves who had been in Valinor, such as Galadriel, it may have conjoured memories of the Two Trees, and for those who had not seen them, simply magical experiences which they interpreted as divine.

It could also have much to do with Yggdrasil, but I shall have to look this up a little more...
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Old 08-17-2005, 04:58 AM   #13
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FoTR, chapter 6 Old Forest:

Quote:
O! Wanderers in the shadowed land
despair not! For though dark they stand,
all woods there be must end at last,
and see the open sun go past:
the setting sun, the rising sun,
the day’s end, or the day begun.
For east or west all woods must fail…
paralleled in FoTR chapter 8 Fog on the Barrow-Downs:

Quote:
Get out, you old Wight! Vanish in the sunlight!
Shrivel like the cold mist, like the winds go wailing,
Out into the barren lands far beyond the mountains!
Come never here again! Leave your barrow empty!
Lost and forgotten be, darker than the darkness,
Where gates stand for ever shut, till the world is mended.
Must be referring to the future 'end of the world' and creation of Arda Remade
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Old 08-17-2005, 05:20 AM   #14
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The 'shadows' are cast by the Light, certainly, but it is the material world which causes the shadows. My feeling now is that light shining in/through branches/hair is perhaps a 'foreshadowing' of that future world, Arda Remade, when things will shine with spiritual light of themselves. It is an image at once of what was (or at least of what was intended & of what will be. In a way it is a 'glimpse' beyond the Circles of the World (beyond time & space). The 'visions' of light in branches & hair are mystical experiences, glimpses of the divine in the mundane.

'O light to us that wander here, amid the world of woven trees' speaks of the Elves longing for what they cannot have. The Elves cannot leave the world of woven trees, because they are bound within the circles of the world. For mortals the Elves themselves provide a glimpse of Divine beauty, yet the Elves themselves will never know that divine beauty till Arda is remade, whereas Men will encounter it when they die. The Elves are carriers of an 'image' of something they cannot themselves know or experience.

I think this perhaps accounts for Men's restlessness - it is part of the Gift of Eru that Men will find no rest in the World - even when they achieve their desires they are not satisfied - they simply desire something else. Their 'freedom' to act beyond the constraints set by the Music is both driven & limited by their insatiable desire. In Middle-earth, at least, Men cannot love the Earth for its own sake (as Finrod comments in the Athrabeth) as the Elves do, because Eru has set this 'desire' in them. Men are driven, & destined never to be satisfied by what they have.

Or something like that.....
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Old 08-17-2005, 10:36 AM   #15
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What has been in my mind today is that this is all reminiscent of church architecture as a way of representing divinity in physical form. One of the most notable features of stained glass windows is that they refract and alter (in some cases amplify) the light which shines through them; not only that, the light also reveals the images hidden in pictorial windows. Stained glass emerged as an art form with the great Gothic cathedrals, which also featured high and slender arches, vaulted ceilings and had relatively little wall space compared to the Saxon churches. You could say that some of these cathedrals (such as York Minster) are actually quite reminiscent of groves of trees with their rows of colums supporting soaring arches. The one thing that most people will do in a cathedral is look up, just as most would also look up when they saw a stately tree.

In Middle-earth there are no devotional structures, possibly as there are no religious organisations to provide them, but it is not a world without spirituality and/or divinity. The symbol of the Tree is obviously important in the world Tolkien has created - the White Tree could be seen as a replacement for the Three Lions (for example) in terms of an heraldic emblem, possibly even as the Middle-earth equivalent of a cross if we wish to go further. Light is also a sign of divinity. To combine the two in any way would symbolise and bring to mind the Two Trees of Valinor which must be holy in some way.

So when the combination of Light and Trees is brought up, it must bring to mind for the people of Middle-earth one of their most potent symbols. In the Primary world people have built churches to represent their own spirituality, in Middle-earth there is less need to build structures, as the symbols of their own spirituality are all around them. This would give a little more depth to why cutting down trees is seen as a wrongdoing, and it might also explain a little why Tolkien occasionally wrote of trees sometimes being slightly sinister and unpredictable (religion/faith/spirituality is not always filled with 'light' but is often mysterious and dark).

This idea might also combine a little of both Christian and Pagan ideas - there is the powerful need for physical symbols of faith, but there is also a strong element of earth worship too.

That possibly rambles on a bit, so I'll try and think it through a bit more...
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Old 08-17-2005, 10:43 AM   #16
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Something occurs - for what its worth...

In Norse mythology the first humans were called Aesch & Embla (sp?) (trans. Ash & Elm) because they were created from trees.

This may (consciously or unconsciously) have inspired a link in Tolkien's mind between human hair & tree branches. It also gets me wondering about the inspiration for Ents...
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Old 08-18-2005, 03:18 PM   #17
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White Tree

"Seven stars and seven stones and one white tree."

So-- Gondor thought so too, more or less.
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